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May / June 2003

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Water Policy International

 

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Sanitation

This page is under construction - if you have any materials on sanitation which you would like to have included, please contact us - info@thewaterpage.com 




Sanitation Connection is an Internet-based resource that gives you access to accurate, reliable and up-to-date information on technologies, institutions and financing of sanitation systems around the world. Institutions of international standing contribute to the information base by providing and maintaining a topic of their specialization.

 


GESI

Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative

Visit the GESI site

Preliminary proposals for information exchange and dissemination

Sharing of information on sanitation policies, programmes and research activities is at the heart of the Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative (GESI). The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC) and the Water and Engineering Development Centre (WEDC) are developing a series of information management mechanisms to facilitate the sharing process.



Environmental Health Project

 

Below is a listing of EHP publications that are currently available in full text, via the web site.

APPLIED STUDIES

No 2 - Financial Services & Environmental Health: Household Credit for Water and Sanitation (270K)

No 3 - Prevention: Environmental Health Interventions to Sustain Child Survival (html or pdf)

No 4 - Child Survival and Environmental Health Interventions: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (134K)

No 6 - Beyond Participation: Locally Based Demand for Environmental Health in Peri-Urban Areas (html or pdf)

ACTIVITY REPORTS

No 46 - Indicators for Programs to Prevent Diarrheal Disease, Malaria and Acute Respiratory Infections (86K)

No 39 - Identification of Financial Resources and Credit Mechanisms for the Urban Sanitation Program in Jamaica

No 38 - Air Pollution and Child Health: Priorities for Action (html 41K) or (pdf 210K)

No 34 - Designing a Sanitation Program for the Urban Poor: Montego Bay, Jamaica

No 26 - Coping with Intermittent Water Supply and Problems: India (pdf)

No 25 - Monitoring the Effect of Behavior Chane Activities on Cholera: Ecuador (pdf)

No 24 - Addressing Environmental Health Issues in teh Peri-Urban Context: Lessons Learned from CIMEP Tunisia (html or pdf)

No 23 - Evaluation of the Institutional Development Component of the Cairo Water II Project (pdf 246K)

No 22 - An Assessment and Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Mater in Cairo, Volume I (pdf 434K)

CAPSULE REPORTS

No 1 - Health and the Environment in Urban Poor Areas: Avoiding a Crisis Through Prevention (pdf)

Executive summaries are available for the remaining reports that do not have the full text included on the web site.

Below are links and/or abstracts to Internet resources and documents on urban sanitation. This page will be on the EHP web site with links directly to the documents mentioned below. Please let us know if you know of additional Internet resources and documents that can be included.


Title Listing (Internet addresses and abstracts are listed below)

  1. South Africa National Sanitation Policy

  2. EHP - Designing a Sanitation Program for the Urban Poor: Case Study from Montego Bay, Jamaica, Activity Report 34, 1997

  3. EHP - Identification of Financial Resources and Credit Mechanisms for the Urban Sanitation Program in Jamaica. Activity Report 39, 1997.

  4. EHP - Financial Services and Environmental Health: Household Credit for Water and Sanitation. Applied Study 2, 1995.

  5. GARNET Networks

  6. WaterAid Reports: Mega Slums: The Coming Sanitary Crisis

  7. WEDC - On-Plot Sanitation in Low-Income Urban Communities: Guidelines for Selection, by Andrew Cotton and Darren Saywell, 1998.

  8. WEDC - Community Initiatives in Urban Infrastructure, by A. Cotton, et.al., 1998

  9. WEDC - Proceedings of the 23rd WEDC Conference Durban South Africa 1997, Papers on Sanitation

  10. WELL, Water and Environmental Health at London and Loughborough - Technical Brief on Emptying Latrine Pits, Waterlines

  11. World Bank - Operations Evaluation Department - Improving Urban Services In Nairobi

  12. World Bank - Operations Evaluation Department - Sewerage and Sanitation: Jakarta and Manila

  13. WHO Environmental Health Newsletter - Focus on Sanitation, No. 27, October 1997

  14. EHP - Issue and Options for the Transfer of Water Distribution Responsibility to Local Government Structures in the Bushbuckridge, Hazyview, and Nsikazi North Areas of South Africa, November 1997.


 

Internet Resources on Urban Sanitation

1 - South Africa National Sanitation Policy  

This White Paper has been produced in recognition of the many people of our country, and in particular the children, that have endured illness and hardship as a result of not having access to basic information about sanitation or the use of adequate facilities.

The National Sanitation Task Team (NSTT) was established as a result of Government s commitment to improving this situation. The NSTT is a collaborative effort of six government departments and its main tasks are the development of a national policy and a corresponding implementation strategy.


2 - EHP - Designing a Sanitation Program for the Urban Poor: Case Study from Montego Bay, Jamaica, Activity Report 34, 1997 (pdf file)

This report provides a case study of the approach and process used to design a specific peri-urban sanitation program. The case study describes technical assistance EHP provided in two communities in the Montego Bay area, Jamaica. The initial assessment and planning activities took place in the latter half of 1994. The sanitation program, which is sponsored by USAID and implemented by a Jamaican nongovernmental organization (NGO), the Construction Resource and Development Centre or CRDC, has been underway since that time. Results of the implementation of this activity will be documented in a subsequent report.


3 - EHP - Identification of Financial Resources and Credit Mechanisms for the Urban Sanitation Program in Jamaica. Activity Report 39, 1997.(pdf file) 

The purpose of the current activity was to investigate possible methods of utilizing USAID/Jamaica project funds to expand credit access to low-income residents for the provision and improvement of their sanitation infrastructure by accessing the CRDC/SSU services; the long-term purpose is also tied to improvement of the quality of Jamaica's coastal waters. This report provides an analysis of the prospects for alternative credit resources for sanitation improvements in informal coastal communities. It also makes suggestions for adjustments to the delivery mechanism, where these might be needed.


4 - EHP - Financial Services and Environmental Health: Household Credit for Water and Sanitation. Applied Study 2, 1995. (pdf file)  


5 - GARNET Networks

Pit Latrines

Hygiene Behavior

Night Soil/Sludge Treatment


6 - WaterAid Reports: Mega Slums: The Coming Sanitary Crisis

Summary:"After a generation or more of excessive water use and reckless discharge of municipal and industrial wastes, the situation of the world's major cities is appalling and getting worse". Behind today's urban sanitary crisis in the developing world are twin phenomena - rapid population growth and rapid urbanisation - occurring simultaneously in countries which are poor. Domestic water shortages in slums, especially in tropical cities, and unsafe drinking water, carry serious public health risks.


7 - WEDC - On-Plot Sanitation in Low-Icome Urban Communities: Guidelines for Selection, by Andrew Cotton and Darren Saywell, 1998.


8 - WEDC - Community Initiatives in Urban Infrastructure, by A. Cotton, et.al., 1998


9 - WEDC - Proceedings of the 23rd WEDC Conference Durban South Africa 1997, Papers from Session B: Sanitation


10 - Technical Brief on Emptying Latrine Pits - Water and Environmental Health at London and Loughborough (WELL) (pdf file)


11 - Improving Urban Services In Nairobi - World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department

A recent OED impact evaluation finds that five World Bank-supported urban services projects in Nairobi increased the supply of potable water and affordable housing to the poor, improved sanitation and environmental conditions in project sites, and increased access to social services.

The improved and expanded infrastructure brought critical water and sewerage services to rapidly growing business areas and poor neighborhoods in the eastern section of Nairobi, helping in the economic growth of the city. But the cost of water for the poor remained high because of the irregular pricing practices of kiosk operators. And homeownership among transient groups did not materialize as hoped, partly because the project had taken a top-down approach to project design, leading to an inaccurate assessment of the target groups' housing need. Finally, loan recovery for the housing projects was poor, showing once again that public agencies are less adept at collecting loans than private mortgage companies or nongovernmental organizations.

Among the lessons, the OED evaluation points to the importance of interspersing technical assistance projects between investment interventions to ensure that project activities are continually improved based on experience. Proper sequencing proved one of the strengths of the water supply projects, and the lack of technical assistance in the less successful housing projects an important weakness of those operations.


12 - Sewerage and Sanitation:Jakarta and Manila - World Bank - Operations Evaluation Department

OED recently audited sewerage and sanitation projects in Manila, Philippines, and Jakarta, Indonesia--cities with high population densities, inadequate sanitation, a high incidence of waterborne diseases, and serious environmental pollution. In Manila, the Bank nurtured a dialogue that helped to strengthen and guide receptive, well-run municipal agencies committed to providing needed services and to improving the environment. In Jakarta, the Bank's advocacy of low-cost sanitation technology, against local advice, ultimately caused the project to fail. Neither project came to grips with the problem of final waste disposal.


13 - WHO Environmental Health Newsletter - Focus on Sanitation, No. 27, October 1997

Recent statistics collected by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme imply that about 3,000 million people in the developing world today lack appropriate sanitation.  WHO gives high priority to sanitation and calls on all agencies and governments to do the same.


14 - EHP - Issue and Options for the Transfer of Water Distribution Responsibility to Local Government Structures in the Bushbuckridge, Hazyview, and Nsikazi North Areas of South Africa, November 1997. (pdf file)

 


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